How Do Electric Bikes Work? Electric Bike Advantages

How Does An Electric Bike Work – What Are The Advantages?

The basics of an electric bikes are very simple. The electric motor propels the bike, A special design efficient battery supplies the power to right engine components, and a throttle provides speed control ,

how does an electric bike work

Even though not all electric bikes have a throttle. The difference lies in how these components are arranged and what functionalities are assigned.

Some of you remember The first electric bike was just a normal cycle with an electric motor and a mounted battery.

As electric bikes became more popular and part of our life due to city congestions, more of high quality models were developed. Most of them still look much like ordinary bicycles, but built with the motor and battery as an integral part.  Modern electric bicycles are better balanced and more efficient than ever before.

Electric Bikes Assembly

Some assembly of your new electric bike may be required. Often, this merely involves attaching the front wheel, but assembly chores are sometimes more complex than that. Several manufacturers provide instructional videos to help owners with the task of e-bike assembly.

The motor

There are 3 different types of electric bike motors available in market:

  • brush motors,
  • brushless motors,
  • and friction drive motors.

Brush motors

Brush motors are most common because of their durability but inexpensive to produce. However, modern brushless motors are lighter, smaller, and more powerful than brush motors, and they can be very quite. Electric bikes with brush motors are more expensive, but they require no maintenance. As a result, most electric bikes nowadays have brush motors.

friction drive

Electric bikes powered by a friction drive motor, operates via a small, solid wheel that rotates against the side of the tire. The first bikes used the same idea, with a motor mounted above the front wheel.

But the drive used to rub at the side of the tire. It was inefficient, and it quickly wore the sidewall away. Tires had to be replaced so often. For this reason, You’ll hardly see this type of electric bikes around


electric bike’s motor locations

Motor of an electric bike is fitted to one of three places:

  •  The front hub,
  •  The crank (where the pedals are),
  • Or rear hub.

how does an electric bike work

Front Hub

Most e-bike conversion kits are for the front wheel. They are easier to fit. But do change the balance of the bike, and then, brakes should be uprated to cope with the additional weight.

Mid Mount

The Mid-mounted crank drives produce the most bicycle-like feel, in here the pedal crank turns and drives the chain, just like when you pedal as regular. This type of drive is efficient at transmitting power, and makes them popular for a fast, off-road electric bike.

Rear Hub

E-BIKES Rear hub motors are also popular. A few owners reported this make the back of the bike feel a bit heavy, the battery is often back there too which explains the extra weight,  but the bike balance is still good.

 The motor power of an e-bike

E-BIKES Motor power varies and can be restricted depending on where it is going to be used, (on or off-road). An average electric motor for a road bike will deliver between 250 and 600 watts of power. There are other off road bikes that can have as much as 6000 watts of electric power.


When considering torque in an e-bike,  put in consideration the Road conditions, as well as the weight of the rider these 2 elements have a big impact in considering bike torque.


Electric bikes- The Battery

How Do Electric Bikes Work

Lithium-ion batteries are almost invariably used in e-bikes for their efficiency and added power.

Almost 90% of electric bikes are powered by standard lithium-ion batteries, as well as other more modern batteries such as lithium-ion polymer batteries, lithium manganese batteries, and lithium cobalt batteries.

Lithium-ion polymer batteries

These batteries have the same electrical persona as standard Li-ion batteries, but the material can be shaped more easily.

Lithium manganese batteries

Such batteries are used in the latest Nissan Leaf electric car. They’re proven to generate more power and last longer. The new Leaf has double the range of its predecessor, but can be seen in only very expensive e-bikes.

Lithium cobalt batteries

These batteries are lightweight,  while they can offer a great range,  they are not common.

Charging the e-bike Batteries

Charging an e-bike battery requires nothing other than a household outlet. The time and or distance an electric bike battery will run between chargings is impossible to tell. Cheap batteries  take six hours or more to charge and have a life of around 500 charges. High-quality batteries will charge in 2 to 4 hours and can last up to 1,000 Charge.

E-Bikes – The throttle

How Do Electric Bikes Work

The last e-bike component I’m going to discuss is the throttle. Some e-bikes use levers much like you’d find on your backyard lawn mower. Others just have a button, but most would use motorcycle style twist grips. Such gives a positive feel and more control.

Many electric bikes have no throttle at all. Instead, computerized sensors would judge the effort required for pedaling and, at a predetermined level, the motor jumps in.

These are assisted pedaling e-bikes,” also known as pedelecs. They’re here to help you out when the going gets tough, but they do not supply constant power.


Hope this was of a great help you understanding the concept of an electric bike, If you like to add more or have any questions regarding this topic, please hit the comment box below and you are warmly appreciated.

Also see…

Folding Electric Bike – 5 Reasons Why You Should Have One?

Electric Bikes with Pedal Assist & Throttle Assist


Sam Ammouri

Site Aurhor

Sam Ammouri, owner of

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